By | September 22, 2018


Uumaa (Cosmology); Waaqa (Undifferentiated-Being); Safuu (Human Ontology). Xinjireenya Oromo—Oromo Ontology/Metaphysics

Kutaa 2ffaa (Part II)

Dr. Yoseph Mulugeta Baba *

* Yaadachiisa: kutaa 1ffaa dubbisuun barbaachisaa dha.

Waa’ee Dhugaa Ganama (the Primordial Truth) ifatti ykn sirriitti hubachuuf, haali barbaachisaan inni dura yaadrimee waliigalaa kan ‘JIREENYA’ (existence) ilaaluu dha. Sirna beekumisa Oromo keessatti, hubannoo (understanding) fi hiikaan (interpretation) kan addunyaa (of the world), kan mataa ofii (of oneself) fi kan uummata biraa (other people) yaadrimee waa’ee ‘JIREENYA’ irraa jalqaba ykn eegala. Falaasama natoo kana of-eeggannoodhaan qorachuuf, waan hunda dura, yaadirmee xinjireenya Oromo (Oromo ontology/metaphysics) sirriitti qalbifachuun baay’ee barbaachiisa dha.

Xinjireenya ykn Xindhugaa Oromo—Oromo Ontology or Metaphysics

Xinjrrenyi Oromo yaadrimeewwaan bal’aa garee sadiitti qoodamu:-

(a) Uumaa (Cosmology);
(b) Waaqa (Undifferentiated-Being); fi
(c) Safuu (Human Ontology).

A. Uumaa—Cosmology

Uumaan uumamoota waaqa fi lafa giddu jiran cufa (universe) agarsiisa. Jechi UUMAA jedhu gochima UUMUU jedhurraa kan argame yoo ta’u, uumamoota Waaqni uume hunda; uumama lubbu qabeeyyii fi lubbu dhabeeyyii; afuuroota adda-adda uumaman hunda kan ibsu dha. Uumamni guutuumaan-guutuutti qolloo fi addunyaa keessa jiruu, UUMAA jedhamee beekama. UUMAAN AGAGGEE (circle) UUMAMNI MARTI KEESSA JIRUU DHA. Haa ta’u malee, akka sirna beekumisa Oromotti, Uumaan waan fufataa qabu dha malee (a continuous process), kan hin jijjiiramne (static) miti. Kana jechuun, uumamni (creation) dalagaa hojjetamee fiixaan baasaame osoo hintaane, waan walirraa hin cinne fi fufataa kan qabu dha. Yaada falaasama natoo Oromo kana daran hubachuuf, akkaataa yaadrimeen WAAQA (Undifferentiated-Being) yaada fufutaa UUMAA kana wajjin wal hidhee/xaxee jiruu fi addan bassuun kan hin danda’amne ta’u haala guutuun (thoroughly) haailallu.

(Hubachiisa:- ‘Uumaa’ jechuun ‘Waaqa’ jechuu mini. Namoonni tokko tokko jecha ‘Uumaa’ jedhu ‘Creator’ ykn ‘God’ jechuun gara afaan Ingiliziitti hiiku. Kun hiikkaa sirrii mini! Hiikkaan inni sirriin ‘Cosmos’ ykn ‘Nature’ isa jedhu dha. Fkn. ‘Uumaa ykn uumama Waaqaf safuu!’ jenna malee ‘Uumaaf safuu!’ hin-jennu. Waaqayyoo tolchaa uumama maraati. Uumamni cufti kun immoo UUMAA jedhamee beekama. Jalqaba yaadrimeen sabni Oromoo waa’ee Waaqaa-irratti qabu haailaallu.)

B. Waaqa (Undifferentiated-Being);

Yaadrimeen sabni Oromoo waa’ee Waaqaa-irratti qabu baay’ee ifaa dha:- Waaqni Le’ii dura dha (Waaqa is the first Being). Waan hundaa kan uume Isa; bara baraan jiraata; jalqabaa fi dhuma hin qabu (He is eternal); humni Isaa daangaa hin qabu (He is omnipotent); waan hundumaa beeka (He is omniscient); bakkayyuu jira (He is omnipresent); hir’ina hin qabu (He is absolute); carii qulqulluudha (He is Holy); morkataa hinqabu; tolchaa uumama maraati; burqituu jireenyaa fi jiraachisaa waan cufaati. UUMAA kan eegu, kan balleessuu fi kan tolchuu danda’u Isa qofa dha. Walumatti qabaatti Waaqni madda AYYAANAAti.

AYYAANA

Waaqayyo TOKKO dha. Ha ta’u malee, Waaqayyo TOKKICHI kun kara baay’ee Humna-Isaa ibsa. Humni Waaqa irraa maddu kun AYYAANA jedhama. Waaqayyo madda Ayyaanaati. Ayyaani kun Humna-Waaqa (Vital-Force) dha. Waaqayyo Humna-qabeessa dha. UUMAA-n taafee ykn bu’aa Humna kanaati. Uumamni Waaqni uume hundi Humna kanaan uumame.

Ayyaanni qamaan kan hin mul’anne (immaterial) fi qajeelfama bu’uuraa Uumaati dha. Le’ii ykn jireenya waan tokkos ta’e, leecalloowaan yagutoosaanii (their common properties) kan murteessu Ayyaana dha. Akka G. Dahl falmutti, Ayyaanni eenyumaa (amala) fi hiree (carraa) jireenya hundaaf murteessaa dha. (Dahl, 1996: 167). Qorataan amantii Oromoo, Bartles Lambert, wantootiin uumama keessatti argaman cufti Ayyaana mataasaanii akka qaban hubachiisa. (Bartles, 1990: 113). Ayyaanootiin kunneen Jiruu-fi-Jireenya keenya bitu ykn bulchu; nutis kan ta’u qabnu kan taane Ayyaana kanani dha. Akkasumas, Ayyaanootiin akka le’iitti (being) hubatamu. (Ibid.) Aadaa Gujiirratti qorannoo bal’aa kan tolche, Joseph Loo, “Ayyaani kutaa le’ii kan hin mul’anee; afuura ykn ruhii dha,” jechuun yaada armaanolitti eerame kana mirkaneesse jira. (Joseph van de Loo, 1991: 149).

Kanaaf, waan hundinuu (kan qaamaan hin mul’anne fi kan qaamaan mul’atu) Ayyaana kan ofiisaa qaba. Falaasama Oromo keessatti, amali (character) fi jireenyi waan tokko addaan hin ba’an. Kana jechuun, waan qabatamaan jiru ykn mul’atu tokko (entity), axeerara (concept) isaarra addan baasnee beekun hin danda’amu. Qorannoon Dahal yaadrimeen Uumaa kan Oromo, daangaa addunyittii dhugaa (the real world—kan qaamaan mul’atu) fi addunyicha kan yaada (world of ideas—kan qaamaan hin mul’anee) gidduutti kan ijaarame ta’u isaa agarsiisa. (Dahal, 1996: 167).

Haa ta’u malee, gaafii yaachisaan (the critical question) falaasama keessatti dirqamaan ka’u qabu tokko ni jira. Ayyaani eenyumaa fi carraa waan hundumaa murteessa yoo ta’e, gaafii le’ii fi bilisummaa (the question of existence-freedom) ykn rakkoo jijjiirama fi dhaabbatummaaf (the problem of change-permanence) akkamitti fala barbaaduu dandeenya? Gaafii kan falaasama kana haala gaariidhaan deebii itti kennuuf, yaadrimeewwaan Oromo kan Waaqa fi kan Safuu irratti hubannoo ifaa qabaachuun baay’ee barbachisaa dha.

Tokkoffaa, maddi jireenya waan hunda Waaqayyo dha. Kan Waaqa uume hin jiru, kan isa malee uumamees hin jiruu. Garuu, jecha “Waaqa” jedhu kana gara Afaan Ingliiziitti “God” ykn “Supreme Being” jennee hiikuun dogoggora dha. Lambert Bartles yaadrimee Oromo kan Waaqa guutuumaatti ykn daran ibsuu kan danda’u jecha “Divinity” jedhu akka ta’e yaada dhiheessa. (Bartles, 1990:, 89). Karl Erik Knutsson yaada Lambert kana deggeruun jecha “Waaqa” jedhuf hiika “God” jedhu kennuun jajjabeessamuu akka hin qabne falma. (Knutsson, 1967: 49).

Qu’annoo amantii kan Warra Dhihaa keessatti jechi “God” jedhu hiika dabalata yaada tokkumaa (unity) fi bilisummaa (independence) jedhu of keessatti qaba. Yaadrimeen Oromo kan Waaqa garu kana irra adda dha. Akka falaasamnni natoo kan Oromo agarsiisutti, addunyaa kana keessatti Waaqayyo kara heddu kan of mul’isu fi waan hundaa kan hammatu dha. Waaqayyo addatti mataa isaa kan danda’e ykn bilisummaa kan qabu ta’ullee, Uumaa irra adda ba’ee hin jiraatu. Waaqayyo fi Uumaan kara Ayyaana wal hdhaanii waan jiraniif, gonkumaa addaan baasuun waan hin danda’amne dha. Waaqayyo Uumaa wajjin kan jiruu fi ture (immanent) malee, guutuumaan guutuutti muuxannoo Jiruu-fi-Jireenya-Namatti ol (transcendental) mini. Beekumsi muraasi dhali nama waa’ee Waaqa irraatti qabu amansiisaa (logical) ta’uu kan danda’e karaa Ayyaanaati dha.

Waaqayyo wantoota adda adda keessatti karaa Ayyaana of-mul’isa. Ta’us, Waaqayyo Ayyaana mini; Ayyaanni garu akkaakuudhaan kutaa kan Waaqayyoti dha. Bartles Lambert, jecha “Divinity” jedhu fayyadamuun si’a tokkotti le’ii (a being) fi akkaakuu kan le’ii sana (a quality of that kind of being) akka sammu keenya keessatti yaannu nu-godha kan jedhu sababa kanaaf dha. (Bartles, 1990: 89). Le’iin kan waliigala (general) yoo ta’u, akkakun kan le’ii sana garuu kan dhuunfa (particular) dha. Akkaku kan le’ii waan tokko kan murteessu Ayyaana dha; maddi Ayyaana garu Le’ii kan waligala kan ta’e Waaqayyoo dha. Sababa kanaaf dha, Waaqayyo Ayyaana mini; Ayyaani garu tokkoon tokkoon akkaku le’ii kan murteessu qaama Waaqati kan jennu.

Falmi kabajamaa kan Bartles fi Knutsson kun akka jirutti ta’ee, yaadrimee Oromo kan Waaqa daran ibsuu kan danda’u jecha “Undifrentiated-Being” jedhu dha. Tokkooffaa, yeroo baay’ee jechi “Waaqa” jedhu addeessa (adjective) GURRAACHA jedhuun ibsama—Waaqa Gurraacha. Falaasama Oromo keessatti, Gurraachummaan humna humnaa oliiti fi qulqullummaa dha. “Bareedina gurraachatii fi dubbii gamnaa nama bira gayetu hubata,” akka jedhan, Gurraachummaan hubachuuf rakkisaa waan ta’e tokko agarsiisa. Gurraachummaan yaada “kan jalqaba” ykn “kan waliin hin makamne” jedhu ibsa. Gurraachummaan maddi Waaqa “kan hin beekamne” ta’u agarsiisa. Dahal fi Gemetchu Megerssa, jechi “Gurraacha” jedhu eenyummaan Waaqayyoo sirriitti adda ba’ee kan hin beekamne (lack of distinction) kan agarsiisu ta’u mirkaneessaanii jiruu. (Dahal, 1996: 169). Haa ta’u malee, waan hundiinuu boca Ayyaanatiin Waaqa-Gurracha kana keessaa yaa’a ykn dhangala’a.

Lammaffaa, falaasama natoo kan Oromo keessatti, yaada kan Ayyaana fi yaadrimee kan Waaqaa addaan baasuun tasa hin danda’amu. Sababiin isaa, yaadrimee Oromoon waa’ee uumama irratii qabu, garaagarumma akkanaa kana waan hin eeyyeemineefidha. Ilaaclchi Oromo kan Uumaa fi kan Safuu dhangala’a jireenya Waaqa-irraa burquu dha. Kana jechuun, gochi kan uumamaa (the act of creation) ammayyuu kan jiruu fi fufata kan qabu malee, waan ta’e gumeessame ykn xumurame mini. Jireenyi Waaqa-irraa burqu kun gocha fi fufata kan uumamaa kanaaf akka abbaanaati (agent) ilaalama. (Dahal, 1996: 167). Dhali namaas kara Jiru-fi-Jireenya isaatiin (Safuu) gocha kan uumamaa kana keessatti hirmaata.

Haaluman kanaan, sababni jireenya Uumaa fi Ayyaana Waaqayyo dha. Garuu, Uumaa fi Ayyaani hamma tokko “garaagara.” Falaasama Oromoo keessatti, Uumaan har’umee (temporary) kan agarsiisu yoo ta’u, Ayyaanni immoo waa dhaabbataa ta’e tokko ibsa. Ayyaanni idoo fi yeroon kan murtaa’e mini. Uumamni Uumaa keessatti argaman hundi garuu idoo fi yeroon daangeffamu. Waan hundumaa idoo fi yeroon kan murteessu Ayyaana dha. Eenyummaa tokkon tokkoon uumama guutuumaan guututti kan murteessus Ayyaana dha.

Amma gaafii yaachisaa kan falaasamaa armaan-olitti eerameetti haa deebinu. Waan hundumaa idoo fi yeroon kan murteessu Ayyaana yoo jenne, gaafii le’ii fi bilisummaa (the question of existence-freedom) ykn rakkoo jijjiirama fi dhaabbatummaa (the problem of change-permanence) akkamitti injifachuu dandeenya? Seenaa falaasama kan warra Dhihaa keessatti (in the history of Western philosophy), gaafii yaachisaan kun falaasoota baay’ee giddutti falmii gudda uumee darbera. Har’as falmii cimaan kun akka itti fufeetti jira. Falaasoota natoo Oromoof (indigenous Oromo philosophers) galanni haa ta’utti, xinjireenyi Oromo (oromo ontology) gaafii kan falaasama kanaaf haala milkaa’en deebii itti kennee jira. Seena falaasama kan warra Dhihaa keessatti, falasaan furmaata guutuu ykn waligala akkasi kenne barbaadani argun rakkisaa dha. Itti aanee, toggoowwaan xinjireenya Oromo keessa tokko kan ta’e SAFUUn gaafii walxaxaa kanaaf deebii waligala (holistic) haala kamiin akka dhiheessu haa-ilaallu.

C. Safuu (Human Ontology)

Namoonni aadaa Oromoratti qorannoo gegeessaan irra-jireessi, yaadrimee kan Safuu waa’ee falaasama safeeffannaa (moral philosophy) dwwaa wajjin wal-quunnamsiisani dhiheessu. Kun dogoggora gudda dha. Falaasamni safeeffannaa birkiwwaan ykn dameewwan Safuu keessa isa tokko dha. Xinjireenya Oromoratti qorannoo xiilla (callabboo) kan tolche Gemetchu Megerssa, ka’umsi yaadrimee Safuuf sababni muddama (faalla?) yaada Uumaa fi Ayyaana giddu jiruu akka ta’e sirriitti adda baasee beekee jira. (Gemetchu, 1996: 97). Falaasama Oromo keessatti, ka’uusa yaddrimee kan Safutiif sababni inni guddaan Jiruu-fi-Jireenya-Nama dha. Hubanoo (understanding) fi hiikaa (interpretation) yaadrimeewwaan kan Uumaa, kan Waaqa fi kab Safuu BU’URISAANI yaada JIREENYA jedhu dha. Jireenyi ykn Jiruu-fi-Jireenya-Nama wiirtuu falaasama Oromoo dha. Kutaa 4ffaa kessatti falaasama kana gad fageenyaan ibsu yaala.
Hangasitti nagaan naa tura!

____________________________________________
References

Asmarom L. Gada: Three Approaches to the Study of African Society. New York: The Free Press, 1973.
___________. Oromo Democracy: An Indigenous African Political System. Philadelphia, PA, RSP, 2000/2006.
Baxter, P. T. W., Hultin, J., and Triulzi, A. eds. Being and Becoming Oromo: Historical and Anthropological Enquires. Asmara: The Red Sea Press, Inc., 1996.
Bassi, M. “Power’s Ambiguity or The Political Significance of Gada.” In Being and Becoming Oromo: Historical and Anthropological Enquires, eds. P. T. W. Baxter, John Hultin and Alessandro Triulzi. Asmara: The Red Sea Press, Inc., 1996, 150-161.
Dahl, G. “Sources of Life and Identity.” In Being and Becoming Oromo: Historical and Anthropological Enquires, eds. P. T. W. Baxter, John Hultin and Alessandro Triulzi. Asmara: The Red Sea Press, Inc., 1996, 162-177.
Dirribi D. B. Oromo Wisdom In Black Civilization. Finfinnee: Finfinne Printing and Publishing S. C., 2011.
Gadaa M. Oromiya. Addis Ababa, 1985.
Gemetchu, M. “Oromumma: Tradition, Consciousness and Identity.” eds. P. T. W. Baxter, John Hultin and Alessandro Triulzi. Asmara: The Red Sea Press, Inc., 1996, 92-102.
Helland, J. “The Political Viability of Boorana Pastoralism.” In Being and Becoming Oromo: Historical and Anthropological Enquires eds. P. T. W. Baxter, Jan Hultin and Alessandro Triulzi. Asmara: The Red Sea Press, Inc., 1996, 132-149.
Geleta K. Hirkoo: English-Afan Oromo-Amharic Dictionary. Aster Nega Publishing Enterprise, 2008.
Knutson, K. E. Authority and Change: A Study of the Kallu Institution Among the Macha Galla of Ethiopia. Gӧteborg: Etnografiska Museet, 1967.
Lambert, B. Oromo Religion: Myths and Rites of the Western Oromo of Ethiopia: An Attempt to Understand. Berlin, 1990.
Leus, Ton. Aadaa Boraanaa: A Dictionary of Borana Culture. Addis Ababa: Shama Books, 2006.
Loo, J. V. D. The Religious Practices of the Guji Oromo. Addis Ababa, 1991.
Raayyaa Horoo, Waaqeffannaa. Finfinnee, 2008.
Sumner, Claude, Oromo Wisdom Literature. Vol.1 Addis Ababa: Gudina Tumsa Foundation, 1995.
Yoseph Mulugeta, “The Role of Negritude in Restoring an Indigenous Gada Oromo Political Philosophy for ‘Good Governance’ in Ethiopia.” M. A. Thesis. The Catholic University of Eastern Africa, 2011.
Yoseph Mulugeta Baba. Metaphilosophy Or Methodological Imperialism?: The Rationale For Contemporary African Philosophy With Reference To Oromo Philosoph. CUEA PRESS, Nairobi, 2015.
Yoseph Mulugeta Baba. The Oromo Concept of reality: Epistemological Approach. African Publishing LTD, Addis Ababa, 2016.

___________________________________
* Yoseph Mulugeta Baba is a qubbee generation born in Eastern Wollega, Konchi/Nekemte, Ethiopia. He holds a B.A, M.A, and Ph.D. degrees in Philosophy from The Catholic University of Eastern Africa (CUEA), Nairobi-Kenya. He also holds a B.D, in Sacred Theology (Magna Cum Laude Probatus) from Pontifical Urbaniana University, Rome. His research interests involve: Metaphilosophy, Oromo Philosophy, Continental Philosophy, Post-colonial African Philosophy, Sage Philosophy, and Post-modernism. His publications include, Metaphilosophy or Methodological Imperialism? (2015); Philosophical Essays (2016); The Oromo Concept of reality: Epistemological Approach (2016); የኢትዮሮፒያንስ የአስተሳሰብ ቅሬ፤ ‹አበበ በሶ በላ› vs ‹ጫላ ጩቤ ጨበጠ› (2017); KANA DUBBIIN (2017); Negritude As The Recovery of Indigenous African Political Leadership፡ The Case of Gadaa Oromo Political Philosophy (2017); Remembering Great African Thinkers (2018). His book titled, African Philosophical Hermeneutics, is forthcoming. Currently he teaches African philosophy at CFIPT. He can be reached at: kankokunmalimaali@gmail.com

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.